Anticipation of development of immune cell-targeted treatment and disease prediction diagnosis method
Researchers at Karolinska University, Sweden, published a paper in the journal Life
modified starch trophozoite
In the brain of elderly patients or neurodegenerative patients such as Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease, many altered starch tropisms are observed.
The normal structure of the starch trophozoite is also used as a waste disposal container in the brain.
[Provided by University of Barcelona, Spain. Resale and DB prohibited]
) Reporter Ki-cheon Han = Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, commonly known as Lou Gehrigs disease, is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of nerve cells that control voluntary muscles.
Although about 10% of patients show genetic characteristics, the specific cause of the disease has not yet been identified.
Because the cause of the disease is unknown, no effective treatment has yet been developed.
When you get this disease, the muscles of your hands and legs become weak, making it difficult to speak and swallow food as well as basic movements.
It is known to some extent that the immune system is involved in the development and progression of ALS.
For example, in ALS patients, neuroinflammation due to activation of glial cells and inappropriate expression of T cells in the central nervous system is characteristic.
There was also a study report that the immune activation of peripheral nerves affects the onset of ALS through the exchange of immune signals between the peripheral and central nervous systems.
However, a new study result showed that the condition of ALS greatly changed according to the increase or decrease of each type of immune cell.
This suggests that there are separate immune cells that slow the progression of ALS and those that stimulate it.
This finding could lead to the development of diagnostic indicators to first observe and predict ALS pathology.
In addition, scientists expect it will lead to the development of targeted therapies that target specific immune cell types.
The results of this study conducted by scientists at Karolinska Medical University in Sweden were published as a paper on the 15th in the journal Life.
Brain neuronal waste that causes Lou Gehrigs disease
ALS is associated with mutations in the UBQLN2 gene.
This gene is known to regulate the processing of cellular waste, such as misfolded proteins.
The red dots in the left cell, where the UBQLN2 gene is normal, show that the garbage removal pathway works well.
None of the red dots are visible in the mutated right cell.
[Courtesy of the University of Maryland Medical School, USA. Resale and DB prohibited]
From the beginning, the research team aimed to find a way to use immune cells to diagnose the pathogenesis of ALS.
288 ALS patients living in the capital Stockholm were recruited into the experimental group and followed for 5 years from 2015 to 2020.
Blood samples were taken at regular intervals to analyze the relationship between the increase in immune cells by type and the progression of the disease.
As the study progressed, the condition of the participating patients worsened, making basic movements such as swallowing food, holding objects with hands, and going up and down stairs increasingly difficult.
However, the number of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes, isolated from blood samples continued to increase.
The researchers counted the populations of 23 subgroups of lymphocytes in blood samples from a flow C cohort of 92 ALS patients.
88% of this sub-cohort were subjects included in 288 of the main cohort.
As a result of correlation analysis of the number of lymphocytes by type of 23 subgroups and changes in disease conditions, it was found that the more natural killer cells there were, and the higher the occupancy of a specific type of T cells, the greater the chance of survival of the patient.
Conversely, an increase in the occupancy of CD8+ T cells and CD4+ EMRA T cells was associated with decreased viability.
Immune cells seem to play a dual role in ALS, said Dr. Kan Kui of the Universitys Environmental Medicine Research Center, who is the corresponding author of the paper. While the increase in neutrophils and monocytes reflects the deterioration of motor function, changes in T-cell levels are the result of survival itself. said to be more clearly related to
Of course, ALS is a disease with a fairly high fatality rate. Patients who have responded to the immune cell measurement may not be able to do so along the way.
Therefore, it is the position of the research team that the research results should be interpreted with caution.
However, there is great hope that this discovery will lead to the development of effective ALS therapies that target specific types of immune cells.
It is also evaluated that it has paved the way for a deeper understanding of how ALS progresses and the development of new patient monitoring techniques.
Dr. Karoline Ingre of Karolinska University Hospital said that follow-up studies will confirm whether treatments that target specific types of immune cells will actually help improve the condition of ALS patients.